About Bačka Palanka

Author: Kalush14net - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=49452939

Names

The city is known for some other names in other languages: svk. Báčska Palanka, mađ. Palanka, nem. Plankenburg.

History

Orthodox Church
Based on archeological findings and written documents, it has been proven that people have lived in this area continuously from prehistory to the present day. The first settlements were built in the 11th century, and the name Palanka was mentioned in 1593. Since the 11th century, Hungarians and Serbs have lived in this area (which is confirmed by Slavic Serbian toponyms: Veliki and Mali Gajic, Golubnjak, Rajkovo, Ristićev put, Uroška bara, etc.).

The data are taken from Hungarian sources, which investigate the struggles of Arpad or Arpadović in the 11th century, and can be considered reliable. At the end of the 16th century, these areas were occupied by the Turks, and with the Peace of Karlovac in 1699, they were definitely abandoned. After that, a new Serbian population settled here, as well as Germans, Slovaks and Hungarians. Until 1916, there were three settlements here: Stara, Nova and Njemačka Palanka.

In the 18th century, the economy began to develop in Palanka (brick production, tobacco processing, silk production and hemp processing), in the 19th century wood processing developed and a steam mill began to operate. The post office was founded in 1828, the port was built in 1867, the first credit society and telegraph in 1869, and the court in 1871. Backa Palanka got its first printing house in 1881, and the first light bulb was used in 1886, the railway was built in 1856, and the telephone started working in 1904.

The oldest archeological finds are silexes (stone tools) that can be dated to the Late Mesolithic period, and the most numerous are the Bronze Age and Late Medieval finds. On the Srem side of the municipality are numerous finds from Roman times. One of the most valuable sites is the "Celtic opidium" (1st century AD) - one of the best preserved fortifications of that time, and in the area of Celarevo was found an early medieval settlement and necropolis (8th to 10th century) - "Menorah of Celarevo". .

The most important cultural monuments include the baroque castle (which houses stylish furniture from the last three centuries) and the baroque park of the Dundjerski family from the 19th century, then the mill and the "Sremska kuća" in the village of Neštin. The most important of the sacral monuments are the iconostasis of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Bačka Palanka from 1773, and in the villages of Despotovo, Silbaš and Neštin. Black poplar, four plane trees, swamp cypresses and a pair of white-tailed eagles are protected natural monuments.

Before the Second World War, there were three municipalities, Backa, Stara and Nova Palanka. After the harsh winter of 1940, the Danube could be crossed by car towards Ilok in early March.

On August 23, 1945, the Law on Agrarian Reform and Colonization was adopted. This law will divide 1,647,305 hectares, of which 668,412 in Vojvodina, to new owners. Shortly after the adoption of the Law, colonists from: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Banija, Lika, Kordun, Montenegro, Dalmatia, Raska, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia and Kosovo arrived in Vojvodina. In a short time, about 250,000 people arrived at the new hearths, making colonization in socialist Yugoslavia the largest migration in the last 300 years.


Organized colonization took place at the end of 1945 and during 1946, but immigration to this area lasted until 1948.

The colonists settled in 114 places in Vojvodina, and gave many of them new names, which reminded them of their homeland and the heroes who led them in the fight for freedom during the four years of war. Chib became Čelarevo, Bukin - Mladenovo, Buljkes - Bački Maglić, Šupljaja - Krajišnik, Parabuć - Ratkovo, Torža - Savino Selo, etc.

Animals from: Drvar, Bosanski Grahov, Bihać, Cazin, Bosanski Petrovac immigrated to Bačka Palanka; in Mladenovo from: Bugojno, Glamoč, Prozor, Kupres, Livno and Bosanska Krupa; in Gajdobr from: Mostar, Nevesinje, Stolac, Trebinje; in Nova Gajdobra from: Gacko, Ljubinje, Stolac, Trebinje; in Obrovac from: Jajce, Livno, Travnik, Duvno and Bugojno; in Čelarevo from Bosanski Petrovac; in Tovariševo from: Duvno, Livno, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Grahovo and Bijeljina. A total of seven settlements in the Bačka Palanka district were colonized, together with Bačka Palanka.

Slovak Evangelical Church

The colonists found it difficult to adapt to the new living conditions, and especially to the new climate. Many did not like the climate, they complained about the water, many were not used to this way of field work, there was a strong nostalgia for the old land. The natives and the new government, however, made extraordinary efforts to overcome all these and other difficulties. Numerous courses were organized where immigrants acquired knowledge in hygiene, housekeeping, and agriculture, and literacy courses began immediately, because there were a lot of illiterates.

The settlement of the territory of the Bačko Palanka district began as early as the end of 1945, during November and December, but most of the colonists came in January 1946. 2594 families with 15747 inhabitants moved to the area of Bačka Palanka district.

In the summer of 1965, a flood attacked Bačka Palanka. The high waters of the Danube threatened the Bačka plain for 106 days. The embankments were breached in several places near Bogojevo, Bački Novi Selo, Begeč… The Danube broke through two embankments near Bačka Palanka, but was stopped at the third. The 160 km long front was defended by about 250,000 people from Bezdan to Novi Sad. That year, a powerful embankment was built between the northern shore of Lake Tikvara and the city. On the right side of the concrete dam is a bronze plaque with the text: "Great is your strength on the Danube, you showed us that in 1965, but even greater is the strength of human solidarity that tamed you."

On May 19, 1974, the President of the SFRY Josip Broz Tito, greeted by the citizens of Vojvodina and Slavonia, cut the ribbon and opened the traffic on the Danube bridge between Backa Palanka and Ilok (725 m long) - called "25. May ”. During the bombing in 1999, the bridge was hit and damaged twice on April 4 and 19, and it was not until April 30, 2002, that it was put back into traffic.

On January 13, 2002, the largest fish cauldron (Guinness) was cooked on the "Kalosh Chard", with over 150 kilograms of spices, 350 kg of onions, 300 liters of tomatoes and salt, over 1,700 kg of fish were simmered. The diameter of the cauldron was 2.4 meters, depth 1.5 meters, and it holds 4,000 liters of water. At -10 ° C, as many as 12,000 guests tried fish stew, and so many more were left hungry.

Archimandrite Tadej, an old man from Vitovnica, died in the Lord on April 13, 2003 in Bačka Palanka, where he lived for the last years of his life.

Economy

Agriculture is well developed, but the powerful Bačka Palanka industry is still the main driver of the city and its surroundings. Three economic giants Nektar sokovi, Čelarevska pivara and the factory of floor and wall coverings Tarket employ several thousand people, and in addition to them as extremely successful companies we can mention Dunavprevoz, malt industry AD Maltineks, meat industry AD Bačka - Bačka Palanka, metal company Kovis BP, Majevica, Platner, Enia, Fertil and many others.

Geography

The municipality of Bačko Palanka covers a large area of southwestern Bačka with twelve settlements. In addition, it owns two smaller settlements in Srem, which means that the Danube, which forms the border between Backa and Srem, crosses the municipal territory. Backa Palanka is on the banks of the Danube River on the border with Croatia.

Along the left, Bačka bank of the Danube, in the area of the municipality, there is a 0.5-2 km wide low marsh area, endangered by the high waters of the Danube. Due to that, there are no built-up settlements on the coast. The closest to the Danube is Backa Palanka. The peripheral southern parts of the city are 500 m away from the river. The only small settlement in Srem, Neštin, lies right next to the right bank of the Danube. For these reasons, no river port has been built in the municipality, so the Danube, although a large international navigable river, is not of major importance for the municipality in terms of traffic. Two navigable canals of the Danube-Tisa-Danube hydro system were also traced through the municipal territory. The entire width of the municipal area intersects the Bački Petrovac-Karavukovo canal, in the east-west direction, and the smaller northeastern part near Despotovo intersects the Novi Sad-Savino Selo canal in the north-south direction. Let us also mention that next to Mladenovo, along the southwestern edge of the municipality, the canalized river Bačka Mostonga flows.

Traffic

Land roads are incomparably more important for the municipality of Bačka Palanka. The most important are the two car routes. The first, which leads from Novi Sad through Backa Palanka to Bac and Sombor, from where it continues across the Abyss to Baranja and north to Hungary, near Odzak, a significant road separates from this direction to Bogojevo and Osijek. The other crosses the municipality in a north-south direction. It connects Bačka Palanka via Vrbas, Bačka Topola and Subotica with central and northern Bačka. The same road continues to the south over the bridge on the Danube towards Ilok, Shido and the Belgrade-Zagreb highway. Near Ilok, this road intersects the important Danube road that leads from Petrovaradin through Beocin and Ilok to Vukovar and further to Osijek in one direction and from Vukovar to Vinkovci in the other.

Somewhat less important is the highway Novi Sad-Bački Petrovac-Odžaci, which crosses the northern part of the municipality on the line Silbaš-Parage in the southeast-northwest direction.

Karadjordjevo and Mladenovo are located on the local road that separates from the road Backa Palanka - Bac, between Backa Palanka and Obrovac and through these settlements leads to the road Bac - Backo Novo Selo. Let us mention that the local road to Vizić is separated from the Danube road 1 km west of Neštin, so that all municipal settlements are connected to the municipal center by good roads or are located on important regional roads, which further connect them with other parts of the country and Europe. The Bačka Palanka area is also intersected by the Novi Sad-Odžaci-Sombor railway.

Relief

The area of the municipality of Bačko Palanka extends, in terms of relief, to all morphological units characteristic of Vojvodina, except sandstone. Next to the Danube, there is an alluvial plain, ie a marsh, and these are the lowest areas in the relief of Vojvodina. In our case, the altitude of this area is about 80 m. North of the marsh there is a 3-5 m higher area. It is represented by an alluvial terrace which, like the previous one, was deposited by the Danube. The marshes are endangered at every high water level, which is why housing construction is prohibited in them. The alluvial terrace, on which Bačka Palanka was built, is endangered only by extremely high water levels. From the alluvial terrace further to the north, there is an easy 2-5 m higher step, an easy terrace, which is part of the spacious easy terrace of Bačka.

Along the right bank of the Danube, behind the alluvial plain or directly along the bank, there is no light terrace, but steep sections or slopes rise 20-30 m higher light surface, light plateau. It is part of the Fruska Gora light plateau. Further south, in the area of Vizić, there are branches of the mountain massif of Fruška gora.

Climate

The territory of the municipality is located in the temperate continental climate zone. Climate influences from all sides are changing in it, as, after all, in the entire territory of Vojvodina, since it represents a plain open in all directions.

Settlements

author of the photo> Darko Živković

Backa Palanka has a peripheral position on the territory of its municipality. Considering the municipal settlements in Bačka, it is the southernmost and closest to the Danube. East of the municipal headquarters, next to the Novi Sad road, lies Chelarevo, 11 km away. In the northwest direction, on the Sombor road are Obrovac, 9 km away from Backa Palanka, and Tovarishevo, 14 km away. Somewhat further west, on the local road are Karadjordjevo, which is 10 km away, and Mladenovo, 14 km away from the municipal center. In the direction of the north, on the road to Vrbas are the following settlements: Nova Gajdobra at 10 km, Gajdobra at 14 km, Silbas at 20 km and Despotovo 29 km away from the municipal center. From Despotova, the road leads to Pivnice, the most distant settlement from the municipal center, which is 34 km away, while the road from Silbaš leads to Parag, 25 km away. Across the Danube and part of the Vukovar municipality, which is a kind of curiosity, you can reach Neštin on the Danube road, 9 km away from Bačka Palanka, and the last municipal settlement Vizić on the local road, 6 km away from Podunavski put and 13 km from the center of the municipality.

The borders of the municipalities of Backa Palanka are mostly administrative, bordered by lines between the rural areas towards the neighboring municipalities. Only the Danube, towards the south, forms the natural border, and not completely because, as it has already been pointed out, the southeastern smaller parts of the municipal territory are located in Srem, on the other side of the river. South of the Danube is the area of the municipality of Vukovar, to the west is the municipality of Bac, to the northwest is Odzaci, to the north and northeast is the area of the municipality of Vrbas, and to the east is the municipality of Backi Petrovac. The Srem part of the municipality of Bačko Palanka is bordered on the west by the municipality of Vukovar, on the southwest by the municipality of Sid, on the south by the municipality of Sremska Mitrovica, and on the east by the municipality of Beocin. Therefore, the municipality of Backa Palanka borders on eight municipalities, four of which are in Backa and the same number in Srem.

Statistics

Area of municipalities Bačka Palanka is 579 km². That is about 100 km more than the average size of Vojvodina's municipalities, which means that it belongs to the group of larger municipalities in Vojvodina. In 1991, 58,835 inhabitants were registered in the municipality, which is about 14,000 more than the Vojvodina average, so in that respect it belongs to the group of larger municipalities. The population density is 101.6 inhabitants per m2, which is also higher than the Vojvodina average (93.6).

The municipal territory is irregular in shape, elongated in a north-south direction. Its length on the line Pivnica-Vizić is 40 km, and the greatest width on the line Mladenovo-Čelarevo is 28 km, while the average width is 14.5 km.

Demographics

There are 23,560 adult inhabitants in the settlement of Bačka Palanka, and the average age of the population is 39.0 years (37.6 for men and 40.3 for women). There are 10051 households in the settlement, and the average number of members per household is 2.92.

This settlement is mostly inhabited by Serbs (according to the census from 2002), and in the last three censuses, an increase in the number of inhabitants was noticed.